How your premarital experiences can affect your future marriage | Deseret News
fact of having sex before marriage was not usually linked to of sexual timing and commitment in dating relationships. to forming healthy marriages and even may lower chances of marital success (Busby et al. The achievement of intimacy in a romantic relationship is considered having premarital relationships has lengthened to over a decade for many romantic experience (e.g., not married, dating once a month or less). a conclusion bolstered by a large literature on the effects of divorce (see Amato, ). In particular, having only ever lived with or had sex with one's For many people , an elevated risk of difficulties in marriage was Living with a partner makes it harder to break up than dating, Hence, this is one more way that having more relationship experience before marriage can impact the odds of.
Larger transfers only serve to increase this dependency. The best known example is commercial sex work.
Transactional sex is a more informal means of commodity exchange, where the exchange of transfers for sexual activity does not occur at each encounter and payment need not be predetermined or explicitly stated. Nevertheless, the expectation that sex must be reciprocated with material transfers persists Luke, ; Sprecher, Evidence from a range of qualitative studies in Africa supports the view that many nonmarital relationships can be considered commodity exchanges, because women understand that the receipt or promise of transfers means they must agree to unsafe sexual practices Dunkle et al.
Importantly, there is no return expectation of sex Carrier, ; Luke, ; Mauss, Gift exchange provides an alternative explanation for the linkage between material transfers and sexual activities: Men who are committed to their female partners show their affections by giving transfers; those transfers are in larger amounts.
Thus, material transfers could proxy for love or commitment, and the negative association between transfers and safe sexual activities could therefore be spurious. Overall, there have been few quantitative investigations of the linkages between material transfers and sexual behavior for exceptions, see Luke, ; Moore et al.
Second, the receipt of material transfers from the male partner within the relationship and larger amounts of material transfers will have the opposite effect on these sexual outcomes. Third, controlling for the level of commitment within the relationship, material transfers from male partners will continue to be negatively associated with safe sexual behaviors for young women. In addition to these main associations, we also controlled for important factors that are likely to be correlated with economic resources and sexual behavior, including the ages of young women and their partners as well as educational attainment.
We tested our hypotheses in Kisumu, the third largest city in Kenya and capital of Nyanza Province. Despite ongoing political and economic instability, Kisumu is a destination for many young migrants seeking employment and educational opportunities. HIV prevalence in Nyanza Province was estimated at The researchers were particularly concerned that respondents provide details on the RHC of all types of romantic and sexual relationships, regardless of type, length, and occurrence of sexual intercourse.
Counterintuitive Trends in the Link Between Premarital Sex and Marital Stability
During extensive pretesting in Kisumu, the research team developed a comprehensive list of relationship types that was given to respondents during survey administration to stress the wide range of relationships to be reported on the RHC. Data quality was of primary importance to the study. The collection of retrospective data is subject to recall error, and life history calendars were created to help minimize the risk of its occurrence Axinn et al.
The RHC is a large foldout grid, with information on each topic recorded in a timeline format as opposed to the usual question—response method of survey instruments Freedman et al. Numerous evaluations have found that life history calendars significantly improve the reliability of retrospective reporting e. To reduce this type of bias, the RHC incorporated qualitative techniques Plummer et al. Interviewers were trained to develop significant rapport with respondents.
The interview was flexible and conversational in nature, with the order of questions left up to the interviewer. In addition, the structure of the questioning also minimized the potential embarrassment of questions on sexual behavior by embedding them within the more innocuous context of relationships as well as in conjunction with schooling, work, and migration histories Luke et al.
The quality of the RHC data was assessed through a field experiment conducted among young adults in Kisumu in The sample was drawn by contacting every other household in 45 randomly selected urban enumeration areas.
Men and women ages 18 to 24 in the selected households were eligible to be interviewed; one eligible respondent was chosen randomly from each household. Selected respondents were randomly assigned to be interviewed with the RHC or a standard demographic survey. The results of the methodological experiment found that, compared with the standard instrument, the RHC decreased social desirability bias and increased reporting of a variety of measures of sexual behavior Luke et al.
For our analysis, we used data from female RHC respondents who were involved in a total of romantic and sexual relationships in the 10 years before the survey. We constructed a data set that included information on the first month of these relationships. We chose this stage of the relationship for methodological and substantive reasons. Given its salience, recall is likely to be optimal for the first month of relationships.
Furthermore, this is the time in the relationship when bargaining is most likely to be operative, because patterns of dependency and negotiation are yet to be established Smith, D. These were likely arranged marriages Ocholla-Ayayo, For these cases, we imputed the mean age and modal education group.
Romantic Relationship Patterns in Young Adulthood and Their Developmental Antecedents
Finally, we recognized that although the RHC was designed to improve retrospective reporting, remembering details over a year period could have been difficult for some respondents. If recall bias existed, we expected our results to change as we used data further back in time.
Dependent Variables On the RHC, respondents reported the frequency of intercourse for each month of each relationship using four response categories: Based on this information, the first dependent variable was a dichotomous indicator of whether or not sexual activity occurred in the first month. Our second dependent variable used the same RHC question to measure high frequency of sex dichotomously as 5 or more times in the month or less than 5 times.
Romantic Relationship Patterns in Young Adulthood and Their Developmental Antecedents
The third dependent variable indicated whether condoms were used consistently in the first month, coded 1 if the respondent reported that condoms were always used and 0 if they were used most of the time, sometimes, very rarely, or never. Independent Variables The independent variables also referred to characteristics in the first month of premarital relationships. On the RHC, respondents were asked to estimate the value of money, gifts, and material assistance received from each partner in the first month and how this amount changed over time.
Consistent with this view, Schulenberg and colleagues defined romantic success as being in a committed relationship by age 26 e. Maintaining was defined as having a less committed relationship e. Young adults were thought to have stalled if they had limited romantic experience e.
This suggests stability is a critical measure of romantic success for young adults. Though there are many different dimensions by which to judge intimate relationships Conger et al.
Further, the dissolution of a close romantic relationship is thought to be one of the most traumatic events individuals experience Simpson,a conclusion bolstered by a large literature on the effects of divorce see Amato, Thus, to capture the stability of romantic relationships in young adulthood, the current study examines the amount of romantic involvement and turnover experienced across this period.
Despite growing evidence that the progression to a single, stable relationship is optimal, this is not a path taken by all. For example, though Meier and Allen provided evidence for a normative romantic sequence in adolescence, their findings suggest romantic relationships are rather diverse.
Six unique sequences emerged over the two waves T1: Thus, only a third of the sample was in a steady relationship at T2 Groups 5 and 6with most of those individuals being females.
Males, minorities, and low-income adolescents were more likely to have had no relationship experience. Again, females were more likely to be in a committed relationship, as were individuals whose romantic and sexual experiences started earlier in adolescence. Though being in a committed relationship in young adulthood may have been normative in previous cohorts Cherlin,these studies call into question how pervasive commitment is at this stage of development for the current young adult cohort, particularly for certain groups of young adults, and suggest the disparate patterns Meier and Allen found to characterize adolescence may persist into young adulthood.
In light of accumulating evidence of alternative pathways toward long-term commitment, conceptual frameworks that accommodate diversity in romantic relationship experiences could prove useful. Arnett's theory of emerging adulthood offers such a framework, predicting continuing diversity in romantic experiences and a delaying of commitment well into the 20s. In this theory, the period from 18 to 25 is a time of exploration and instability, more characterized by a self-focus than a focus on establishing a lasting connection with someone else.
Thus, we would expect multiple romantic relationship sequences that would likely parallel Meier and Allen's patterns. Whether this diversity in romantic relationship experiences comes at the expense of young adults' eventual romantic success appears to depend on how stability is conceptualized. Though Seiffge-Krenke proposed that greater involvement, be it with one partner or many, early on leads to later positive romantic outcomes, the work on romantic dissolutions suggests high amounts of partner turnover could be problematic Amato, ; Simpson, Davies and Windle found adolescent romantic relationships with high involvement but high turnover had different effects on adjustment than did relationships characterized by high involvement with a steady partner.
Thus, although early romantic involvement and turnover are related, the two pieces of romantic stability appear to have distinct outcomes. The question of central interest in the current study is whether they have distinct antecedents as well, and whether these antecedents represent coherent pathways through which the key features of romantic relationship stability may develop.
Given the importance of establishing a committed intimate relationship for achieving adult status Lehnart et al. Collins and Sroufe suggested that caregiver relationships may influence romantic development by shaping children's relational abilities and expectancies. As to what features of the caregiver relationship are important, sensitivity to developmental context requires a consideration of which measures might best represent key relationship experiences at each period Pettit et al.
Early on, parents who are overly punitive or harsh teach children that connecting to others can be risky, which explains why early harsh parenting has been associated with later challenges in establishing healthy, stable romantic relationships as a young adult Conger et al.
In contrast, parents who are warm and proactive in their parenting teach children that relationships can be rewarding and fulfilling.
Although these studies provide persuasive evidence of predictive links between parent— child relationships and later romantic development in young adulthood, Seiffge-Krenke found their influence may begin to wane as romantic relationships deepen.
This is not surprising in light of the developmental cascade model, as one would expect other domains of influence to emerge as individuals mature. As children develop, the peer domain begins to take on greater importance for romantic development Collins et al.
Peers' growing influence is not surprising, as the peer network is often the pool from which romantic partners are chosen Furman, Peer relationships may then act as a bridge between parents and romantic relationships, as learning to meet the need for intimacy through friendships gives adolescents the confidence and skills to go outside the caregiver relationship to fill this need. However, characteristics of the friends may be important in shaping adolescents' expectations and abilities in later romantic relationships.
Thus, it appears relationships with both parents and peers work together to shape the course of romantic relationship development in young adulthood Simpson et al. The Current Study The objective of the current study was to identify and describe variations in romantic relationship experiences in young adulthood and their antecedents in a longitudinal, multisite study of males and females.
Beginning at age 18 and continuing to age 25, participants were asked about their romantic relationships and whether they were with the same or a new partner.