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Just as in earlier decades Irish, Italians, and Jewish politicians made it into the mainstream, Latinos are now experiencing that. One of the jewels in the crown of America's most populous state will now be held by a Latino. During the campaign, Mr. Hahn was criticized for alienating African American voters when he fired a black police chief and for angering white voters in the San Fernando Valley when he opposed a secession. Ongoing charges of corruption also trailed Hahn while other observers noted that he simply lacked the charisma to connect with voters in a city devoted to entertainment.
While Villaraigosa captivated audiences with his style and retelling of his climb from a high school dropout to successful politician, the new mayor still must prove he can transfer charisma into managing one of the largest cities in the nation.
The other side of high-profile victories for Latino politicians, say analysts, is that the brighter spotlight can also show deficiencies. Front and center in that challenge is Villaraigosa who has spent months making promises to diverse groups of voters and must now turn them into action.
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Can he or she govern for all voters, and not just those who helped secure the victory? In Villaraigosa's case, he will have a national spotlight on his efforts to balance the expectations of Latinos and non-Latinos.
Shortly after Columbus's expeditions for Spain, explorers and missionaries founded colonies at Hispaniola the Dominican Republic inPuerto Rico inand Cuba in Within a century, Spanish missions extended across southwestern North American from St.
Augustine Florida, to Santa Fe In one generation, the Spaniards acquired more new territory than Rome conquered in five centuries. England had repelled Spain's attempt to invade the British Isles in and destroyed the Spanish fleet.
Spain's effort of maintain its far-flung empire further burdened the nation and, over the next two centuries, its empire receded as the result of competition from other European colonizers and armed conflict. Although Spain had claimed much of the North American interior, Spain's presence was found primarily in missions scattered along the Gulf coast and across the southwest to California.
A series of agreements transferred the Louisiana territory, once claimed by Spain, back and forth between Spain and France until France sold the area to the United States in Shortly thereafter, Spain accepted the transfer of east and west Florida to the U. Mexico declared independence from Spain in Following the Mexican-American War, the U. The Growth of the American Republic. Spain's cultural influence on the territory that became the United States remained long after the Spanish Empire collapsed.
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Explorers, missionaries, and conquistadors had pushed the boundaries of European settlement in the Americas and created a distinct people and culture, with the Spanish language as the common element.
When the United States expanded to the Pacific, the Spanish-speaking people of the west and southwest, and the settlements they established at San Francisco, Santa Fe, and San Diego, became part of the new nation. Until immigration laws were revised Imost Latinos in the U. Cuban communities inn Florida, New Orleans, and New York can be traced to the 19' century, and a Puerto Rican community emerged in New York in the s, but most of the Latino population in the was found in the Southwest.
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 79 Slat. Latino immigration the U. From tothe Latino population of the U. The greatest secret of success is to come to understand identity, and how it intertwines with everyday living, reality and existence. The connection to literature is dumbfounded when Latino teens are isolated in classrooms and are separated from the mainstream current classroom practice in many schools across America.
As a consequence, interest and motivation develop into greater heights: Once the connection is established, students are encouraged and motivated to read rather than to find themselves thrust into a text that is distant from their culture and literary heritage.
But how can students connect to a literature that was intended for a different audience, staged in a diverse setting and written by authors with another literary mentality? The answer speaks for itself. Once upon a time, the Bilingual Act of was enacted and the academic rights of the great wave of Latino immigrants that moved into U.
But the Latino wave threatens once more to surpass all sociological expectations in the up and coming U. Og Mandino states that "When the lion is hungry, he eats. When the eagle has thirst, he drinks. American education cannot dwell on its past successes. While American education gets hungry, the dropout rate of the Latino teen augments each year. Themes include education, identity, varied approaches to race, self-esteem, peer-pressure, family, domestic violence, mother-son-daughter; father-son-daughter relationships, just to mention a few.
In one of Arthur Schopenhauer's memorable quote he says, "All truth passes three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident. He was elected or appointed to school boards, commissions, judgeships and party chairmanships, all with the single-minded purpose of extending equality to Mexican Americans and other minorities in the United States. Through his tireless efforts, he crossed paths with African American and Native American civil rights leaders, Mexican presidents, and other international figures.
When she and her sister were sent to Iowa, they were enrolled in a reform school because the court wanted to avoid sending them to a state institution. In junior high school, she discovered a love for art. Her interest in spiritual and religious things and primitive rituals developed during this time. After graduate school, Mendieta moved to New York.
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Her works are generally associated with the four basic elements of nature. Mendieta often focused on a spiritual and physical connection with the Earth. Mendieta felt that by uniting her body with the earth she could became whole again: I become an extension of nature and nature becomes an extension of my body. This obsessive act of reasserting my ties with the earth is really the reactivation of primeval beliefs Gallery in New York, which was the first gallery for women to be established in the United States.
The venture allowed the opportunity for Mendieta to network with other women artists at the forefront of the era's feminist movement. In an unpublished statement, Mendieta noted that "It is crucial for me to be a part of all my art works. As a result of my participation, my vision becomes a reality and part of my experiences.
While in residence in Rome, Mendieta began creating art "objects," including drawings and sculptures. Silueta Series — The Silueta Series — involved Mendieta creating female silhouettes in nature - in mud, sand, and grass - with natural materials ranging from leaves and twigs to blood, and making body prints or painting her outline or silhouette onto a wall.
I believe this has been a direct result of my having been torn from my homeland Cuba during my adolescence. I am overwhelmed by the feeling of having been cast from the womb nature.
My art is the way I re-establish the bonds that unite me to the universe. It is a return to the maternal source. The films and photographs of Siluetas are in connection with the figures surrounding her body.
Mendieta was possibly the first to combine these genres in what she called "earth-body" sculptures. Mendieta's first use of blood to make art dates fromwhen she performed Untitled Death of a Chickenfor which she stood naked in front of a white wall holding a freshly decapitated chicken by its feet as its blood spattered her naked body.