Library of Celsus Ephesus - My Favourite Planet
The Library of Celsus, Ephesus, Turkey at My Favourite Planet. The Library of Celsus, completed around AD. the Graeco-Roman world, especially after the destruction of the Library of Alexandria by Julius Caesar . which is based on the supposed date of Celsus' death, and the assumption that his sarchophagus. The celsus library in ephesus dating from ad Adult Dating With Naughty in ad the interior of the library was destroyed by fire library of celsus in. The Library of Celsus is an ancient Roman building in Ephesus, Anatolia, now part of Selçuk, The interior of the library and all its books were destroyed by fire in the About AD, the library was transformed into a Nymphaeum. . Ancient libraries · Ancient Roman buildings and structures in Turkey · Ephesus ·
Enlarged decorative detail of the Library of Celsus, acanthus frieze with egg and dart above, bead and reel below After looking at many many photos of this building, and the vast amount of decorative detailing, I realized that I needed to know more about Roman Architecture, certainly the Temple of Minerva is less ornate.
This prompted me to delve deeper into the history of this building. While there seemed a lack of information available for the Temple of Minerva, the Library of Celsus has it's own page on wikipedia, here is an excerpt: Celsus had been consul in 92 AD, governor of Asia in AD, and a wealthy and popular local citizen. He was a native of nearby Sardis and amongst the earliest men of purely Greek origin to become a consul in the Roman Empire and is honored both as a Greek and a Roman on the library itself.
Celsus paid for the construction of the library with his own personal wealth. The library was built to store 12, scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus.
Ephesus, Turkey - the rebuilt 'Library of Celsus' façade | Flickr
Celsus is buried in a sarcophagus beneath the library, in the main entrance which is both a crypt containing his sarcophagus and a sepulchral monument to him. History It was built in Ephesus,[when? The building is important as one of few remaining examples of an ancient Roman-influenced library.
It also shows that public libraries were built not only in Rome itself but throughout the Roman Empire. The interior of the library and all its books were destroyed by fire in the devastating earthquake that struck the city in Only the facade survived.
About AD, the library was transformed into a Nymphaeum. The facade was completely destroyed by a later earthquake, likely in the late Byzantine period. The Library of Celsus may serve as a model for other, less well preserved, libraries elsewhere in the Empire, for it is possible that literary collections were housed in other Roman cities for the benefit of students as well as traveling Romans.
Library of Celsus | Revolvy
Such libraries may also have housed collections of local documents of interest if they were not destroyed during the Roman conquest. The edifice is a single hall that faces east toward the morning sun, as Vitruvius advised, to benefit early risers. The library is built on a platform, with nine steps the full width of the building leading up to three front entrances.
The center entrance is larger than the two flanking ones, and all are adorned with windows above them. Flanking the entrances are four pairs of Ionic columns elevated on pedestals. A set of Corinthian columns stands directly above the first set, adding to the height of the building.
The pairs of columns on the second level frame the windows as the columns on the first level frame the doors, and they also create niches that would have housed statues. It is thought there may have been a third set of columns, but today there are only two registers of columns.
This type of facade with inset frames and niches for statues is similar to that found in ancient Greek theaters the stage building behind the orchestra, or skene and is thus characterized as "scenographic". The building's other sides are irrelevant architecturally because the library was flanked by buildings. A statue of Celsus or of Athena, goddess of truth, stood in the apse, and Celsus' tomb lay directly below in a vaulted chamber.
Along the other three sides were rectangular recesses that held cupboards and shelves for the 12, scrolls. Celsus was said to have left a legacy of 25, denarii to pay for the library's reading material.
Library of Celsus
Architecture The library was designed according the principles of the Roman architect Vitruvius. The edifice is a single hall that faces east toward the morning sun, as Vitruvius advised, to benefit early risers.
The library is built on a platform with nine steps the full width of the building leading up to three front entrances. The central entrance is larger than the two flanking ones, and all are adorned with windows above. Flanking the entrances are four pairs of Composite columns elevated on pedestals.
A set of Corinthian columns stands directly above the first set, adding to the height of the building. The pairs of columns on the second level frame the windows as the columns on the first level frame the doors, and also create niches that house copies of the originals: The main entrance is both a crypt containing Celsus 's sarcophagus and a sepulchral monument to him.
The building's other sides are architecturally irrelevant as the library was flanked by buildings. A statue of Celsus or of Athenagoddess of truth, stood in the apse , and Celsus' tomb lay directly below in a vaulted chamber. Along the other three sides were rectangular recesses that held cupboards and shelves for the 12, scrolls. Those niches along with the double walls behind them worked to both control the humidity and to protect the scrolls from the extreme temperature.
The second and third levels could be reached via a set of stairs built into the walls to add support to the building and had similar niches for scrolls. The ceiling was flat, and there may have been a central square oculus to provide more light.
The building materials, brick, concrete, and mortared rubble, signify the new materials that came into use in the Roman Empire around the 2nd century AD. From Croesus to Constantine: University of Michigan Press. A cuirass statue stood in the central niche of the upper storey. Its identification oscillates between Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, who is buried in a sarcophagus under the library, and Tiberius Julius Aquila Polemaeanus, who completed the building for his father Swain, Simon Politics, Letters, and Philosophy.
Nevertheless, in 92 the same office went to a Greek, Ti. Celsus' son, Aquila, was also to be made suffectus inalthough he is certainly remembered more as the builder of the famous library his father envisioned for Ephesus. Vespasian and the partes Flavianae, Issues Retrieved 2 February